In , concern about public disorder led to the abolition of public executions altogether, and subsequent hangings were transferred inside the prison. Women found guilty of either treason or petty treason were sentenced to be burned alive at the stake, though executioners usually strangled women with a cord before lighting the fire. Burning at the stake was abolished in and replaced by drawing and hanging. Men found guilty of treason were sentenced to be drawn to the place of execution on a hurdle, hanged, cut down while still alive, and then disembowelled, castrated, beheaded and quartered.
It was alleged that merciful executioners allowed men to die on the gallows before dismembering them. This punishment was rare during our period, but occasionally those convicted of coining and petty treason were sentenced to be drawn on a hurdle only, but not quartered.
The last convicts to be sentenced at the Old Bailey to be drawn and quartered were the Cato Street conspirators in , but in the event decapitation was the only part of the grisly ceremony that was actually carried out. Judges occasionally ordered that the bodies of those convicted of egregious crimes and hanged should be hung in chains near the scene of their offence. This practice was supplemented by an act of , "for better preventing the horrid crime of murder", which dictated that the bodies of those found guilty of murder and hanged should either be delivered to the surgeons to be "dissected and anatomised" or hung in chains.
By increasing the terror and the shame of the death penalty, these practices were meant to increase the deterrent effect of capital punishment. They were abolished in dissection and hanging in chains. Early modern prisons were typically used for holding defendants awaiting trial and convicts awaiting punishment. Imprisonment was not perceived as a form of punishment in itself, and indeed the relatively open manner in which prisons were run was not conducive to their serving as a form of punishment.
Occasionally, however, even in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, convicts were sentenced to a period of imprisonment, usually in addition to some other penalty, such as whipping. In a statute was passed which allowed judges to sentence defendants given benefit of clergy to up to two years' hard labour in a house of correction. Until that date houses of correction had - in theory at least - been exclusively used only to punish the misdemeanours of the poor and vagrant.
This punishment was used until , when as a result of a further Act of Parliament most convicts allowed benefit of clergy were sentenced to transportation instead.
From the s new attitudes towards imprisonment developed. It was believed that if redesigned and reordered, prisons could be used to reform offenders, changing them from recalcitrant criminals to productive citizens in the very process of punishing their crimes.
Article 7 means you cannot be charged with a criminal offence for an action that was not a crime when you committed it. This means that public authorities must explain clearly what counts as a criminal offence so you know when you are breaking the law. The right to no punishment. My guest, Alexandra Natapoff, is the author of the new book, "Punishment Without Crime." Critics of how the criminal justice system deals with.
Use of imprisonment was further stimulated by the suspension of transportation following the outbreak of the American Revolution in An Act of , intended to address the problems resulting from the suspension of transportation, allowed judges to sentence male offenders to hard labour improving the navigation of the Thames by dredging it, as an alternative to transportation overseas.
Although the Act did not specify where these men were to be incarcerated old ships anchored on the Thames, known as the hulks, were soon turned to the purpose. The work took place on shore. The Act also allowed the judges to sentence women, and men who were incapable of working on the river, to a term of hard labour in a house of correction.
In Parliament passed the Penitentiary Act , which authorised the building of one or more national penitentiaries characterised by strict discipline and hard labour. In the new Coldbath Fields House of Correction used the controversial system of solitary confinement in an attempt to force convicts to reflect on their sins and to reform themselves.
In conditions for women prisoners in Newgate were reformed. In Millbank Penitentiary opened on the banks of the Thames where the Tate Britain museum stands today. A massive building, it contained separate cells for prisoners. In Pentonville Prison in North London opened. It was built to hold prisoners, intended initially to spend eighteenth months in solitary confinement.
And eight years later, its near neighbour, Holloway Prison was opened. Over the course of the nineteenth century prisons underwent several important changes, including centralisation of administration, the introduction of inspections and widespread use of solitary confinement. Perhaps inevitably, their growing use prompted dissatisfaction with prison conditions and doubts about the impact they had on prisoners.
Alternative punishments were continually being sought. A parliamentary committee in , however, concluded that imprisonment should continue as a central feature of penal policy, and its recommendations were embodied in the Prison Act. By looking at the text of the Proceedings , you can normally determine the length of the sentence and, sometimes, the prison in which the convict was sentenced to be incarcerated.
You will find that sentences often combined imprisonment with other punishments. Judges at the Old Bailey committed prisoners to two institutions more frequently than any others: Newgate Prison and the house of correction. This menu also allows you to search on imprisonment at hard labour and penal servitude and those imprisoned on the grounds of preventive detention.
Prisoners specifically sentenced to hard labour, whether in the house of correction, the hulks, or in prison, have been categorised together under "hard labour". In addition it is possible to search separately for those convicts deemed insane at the time that the offence was committed, and young convicts committed to the Penitentiary.
Many convicts were sentenced to confinement with hard labour. Hard labour was meant to contribute to the reformation of offenders by teaching them to be industrious, but the punishment was also meant to deter others from committing crime. Those imprisoned sometimes worked a water pump see image , while men incarcerated in the hulks worked on dredging the Thames or in the naval dockyards.
Others were sentenced to work on ballast lighters. See also Penal Servitude. The house of correction or "Bridewell" was a sixteenth-century penal innovation designed both to punish and reform petty criminals via a short period of imprisonment at hard labour. As time progressed these institutions were used for a wider range of crimes and the average length of inmates' imprisonment increased.
Prisoners in houses of correction were typically set to beating hemp. The house of correction or "Bridewell" was a sixteenth-century innovation originally designed to provide work for the idle, training for the young, and punishment and reform for petty criminals by subjecting them to short periods of imprisonment at hard labour. As time progressed the training and work provisions fell aside, and these institutions came to be used to punish an ever wider range of crimes.
The length of the sentences imposed also increased. The "Act for the Safe Custody of Insane Persons Charged with Offences" empowered the courts to detain defendants who, due to a lack of lack reason and understanding, were deemed unable to understand the difference between right and wrong. Imprisonment on the grounds of insanity was therefore enforced not only on those people of "unsound mind" found guilty of their crimes, but also those found not guilty. Following the dissemination of the "M'Naughton Rules" for dealing with defendants who pleaded insanity in , the number of defendants receiving this sentence increased considerably.
Newgate was London's chief prison and functioned both as a holding prison for convicts awaiting trial or execution and as a place of punishment. Those sentenced to be punished in Newgate tended to be young people serving a short stint of imprisonment in the prison followed by a more prolonged period of imprisonment in a reformatory. Newgate closed in and was demolished in to make way for the new Central Criminal Court building. Penal servitude was a term of imprisonment at hard labour first introduced by the and Penal Servitude Acts as a replacement for transportation.
It gave judges the discretion to sentence anyone who might otherwise have been transported for less than 14 years to penal servitude. This normally meant labour in a convict prison. Under the Prevention of Crimes Act courts were empowered to pass the sentence of preventive detention in order to protect the public from individuals considered to be habitual criminals , i. Convicts who were sentenced to preventive detention were usually punished first with a stint of penal servitude followed by an open-ended period of imprisonment at hard labour "for the protection of the public".
While this was draconian in concept, judges became increasingly reluctant to use the sentence after the first two or three years. Some convicts were sentenced to periods of imprisonment in more unusual institutions, including the Poultry Compter, New Prison, and Holloway Prison. Some youths between the ages of 11 and 21 who had been sentenced to transportation but were deemed not yet old enough to be sent overseas were sent specifically to "the penitentiary". Others were sent to reformatories or similar institutions including the London Refuge for the Destitute founded in The short life narratives recorded in the minute books of the Refuge for the Destitute for individuals tried at the Old Bailey and sentenced in this way are reproduced here as a part of the Associated Records.
Most of the convicts in this category were sentenced simply to be "confined", with no specific details recorded about where they would be incarcerated. The first major innovation in eighteenth-century penal practice was the substantial expansion of the use of transportation. Although it was believed that transportation might lead to the reformation of the offender, the primary motivations behind this punishment were a belief in its deterrent effect, and a desire to simply remove hardened criminals from society. Although many convicts were transported in the seventeenth century, it was done at their own expense or at the expense of merchants or shipowners.
In the early eighteenth century transportation came to be seen as a way of creating an effective alternative to the death penalty, that avoided the apparent leniency of the other main options: benefit of clergy and whipping. In the first Transportation Act allowed the courts to sentence felons guilty of offences subject to benefit of clergy to seven years transportation to America.
In a further statute authorized payments by the state to the merchants who contracted to take the convicts to America.
What Reparation Should be Granted? He has established 28 new companies, presided over meetings, given instructions regarding 'budget spending' at the House of Representatives DPR , even bid for government projects. In other words, the accomplice must be aware of the real intentions of the principal perpetrator. Article 7 also requires that any favourable changes to sentencing laws or practices that have been made since a crime was committed and a final judgment given must be applied. He had been working on another project at the time entitled The Drunkards , which was to deal with "the present question of drunkenness
The first Transportation Act also allowed those guilty of capital offences and pardoned by the King to be sentenced to transportation, and established returning from transportation as a capital offence. In transportation was halted by the outbreak of war with America. Although convicts continued to be sentenced to transportation, male convicts were confined to hard labour in hulks on the Thames, while women were imprisoned.
One field of business is procurement of medical equipment for hospitals.
To obtain such projects he moved in two directions: officially negotiating a budget with the DPR, and under the table bribing the leaders of the project-holding institution or project tender committee. He then crowds the bidding by using a number of companies which are seemingly owned by different people which submit different price offers. One example of this was said to have occurred in a project to procure medical equipment at Dr.
This project, funded by an allocation in the budget, was awarded to Sanjico Abadi, a company which bid for Rp The alternate winners were Bina Inti Sejahtera Rp According to some sources, Nazaruddin formed these three companies while at Cipinang Prison. Nazaruddin's companies also swarmed a project to procure medical equipment at the Kraton Pekalongan Regional General Hospital in This time he used Bina Inti Sejahtera, which was awarded the Rp Of the 31 companies taking part in the project bidding, five were identified as belonging to Nazaruddin. Two of these reached the final evaluation phase, namely Bina Inti and Global Ismaru.
Sumargono, the commitment-making official for the Kraton Pekalongan Hospital project, claimed he did not know that Bina Inti belonged to Nazaruddin.