Up and Running with AutoCAD 2012: 2D Drawing and Modeling

Up and Running with AutoCAD 2012: 2D Drawing and Modeling
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Up and Running with AutoCAD - 1st Edition

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It is a throwback to the earlier versions of AutoCAD which existed in a time prior to Graphical User Interfaces and all editing had to be done by typing in commands and specifying coordinates. Even something like zooming into an area required the user to input the coordinates defining the window around the area to zoom into.

Naturally enough, none of this functionality has been removed, with the result that AutoCAD now has both a modern graphical interface and a less pretty but far more flexible command line system. The advantages of using the command line to control the program will become clear later.

Using object snap modes is crucial for accurate drawing. Drawing without them will result in misaligned entities and inaccurate lengths and positioning. They can be accessed while using a command that asks the user to input a specific point, either directly at the command line, the OSNAP toolbox or by right clicking while holding the shift key.

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Layout Space is typically used as an area for drawing entities that are not real-world objects, but rather entities that are informational in nature annotations, border and title block, notes, etc. Model space is basically "the real world". Everything is drawn at a scale of one to one where meters, millimeters or inches are the preferred drawing units and all drawing components are positioned at the correct distances from each other, regardless of what sheet of paper they may end up being printed on.

1. Getting Started

The drawings may also be positioned on a specific coordinate system, such as a national mapping grid, in order to integrate accurately with other drawings. A typical Layout Space layout will consist of a standardized title block containing information about the drawing; drawing number, date completed etc. This title block will be drawn to accurately fit on a standardized sheet of paper. For example, a sheet of ISO A1 measures mm by mm.

Up and Running with Auto: CAD 2011. 2D Drawing and Modeling

Thus, a title block for printing on such a sheet may measure drawing units by It can then be printed out at a scale of 1 to 1, and will fit on the page nicely. All this is of course well and good, but how do we get the actual drawing information from model space into this titleblock? To do this, we utilize an item known as a viewport. A viewport is a shape usually a rectangle but can be any shape that is drawn into paper space. Think of them as a TV screen. Inserting a viewport into paper spaces "places a camera" into model space.

You can change the angle of view, the scale factor and many other variables in the viewport settings. These changes only effect this one viewport. This lets you have, for example, one large viewport of a building site at a scale of , and right beside it another showing a detailed area at a scale of It's the same building site, and it exists only once in model space, but it is represented twice in two different ways in the final drawing. The obvious advantage of this is any changes made in model space will instantly update in every viewport, keeping all your printable drawings up to date.

An important thing to realize about AutoCAD is that it is not some kind of digital drawing board. A lot of inexperienced users approach the program as if it was MS Paint for engineers, and end up creating horribly thought out and disorganized drawings that can cause no end of strife and frustration for those who may later be required to work with the files. Not only can badly created drawings cause ulcers to other AutoCAD users, they make it a lot easier for design flaws to sneak into the process.

A little bit of pre-planning and some attention to good drafting practice might be the difference between a painless efficient project and a messy expensive rebuild. The most important thing to understand is that AutoCAD does not, strictly speaking, create "drawings" in the classic sense of the word. The user should not consider themself to be making pictures or creating images. A much more useful and accurate way of thinking about an AutoCAD drawing file is as being a database full of information.

The AutoCAD program allows the user to view and edit this information through a graphical interface. Thus, when drawing a line between two points, realize that you are entering two coordinates into your database. So if you want a line that links the points , and , , then those should be the values you use. Do not, under any circumstances, just scribble down a line in a place that "looks" right.

What kind of database user are you, to be inserting You can use the "Object Snaps" feature to make this work properly, and there is no excuse for creating drawings that contain elements that look like they line up until you zoom in to micrometer scales and discover why those polylines weren't joining correctly or those hatches weren't applying properly etc. It is through the layers window that all data is organised and controlled. A layer can be thought of as being a transparent sheet overlaying the drawing board.

You can have as many as you wish. It is extremely useful to separate as much data as possible onto separate layers. It allows you to have numerous "drawings" all existing together in the one file. When a layer is "turned off" all the information that was on that layer becomes invisible. For a new drawing, the only layer available is the layer 0. This is a special layer which is required in all drawings. It is bad drawing practice to create linework on this layer.

It should be used only for creating the components of blocks and inserting xrefs. More on these later. New layers can be created by hitting the "New Layer" button. By default, Autocad will name new layers "Layer1", "Layer2" etc. It is advisable to rename the layer to match the content that will be drawn on it, e. Overkill command.

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Overlapping and duplicate objects can be a real hassle in a drawing. They can slow things down, and they can mess up object selection and other tasks. It was even worse in the days of pen plotters. The pen would run back and forth over the same area several times as it plotted the duplicate objects, and would often wear a hole right through the paper. It has now been improved upon and incorporated into basic AutoCAD A filter dialog box lets you control how it handles situations such as when objects have different properties line weight, color overrides, and so forth.

Hover over a grip and AutoCAD displays a drop list of editing actions. Multifunction grip capabilities have been extended to many 2D objects. If you hover the cursor over a grip, a selection list of actions appears. For example, hovering over the grip of a dimension text object brings up a list of seven possible actions, such as Move Text Only, Move with Dim Line, and Reset Text Position, which lets you reset to defaults.

Have you ever been bugged by the fact that window selection in AutoCAD may be different from that in other programs? Sometimes you have to pick two points, and other times you pick one point and drag. In this mode, you can define a selection window either by picking two points or by picking one and dragging, with no need to change a system variable setting. Have you ever tried to initiate a selection window in very cramped quarters in a complex drawing?

Suffer no more. Originally it was assumed that UCSs user coordinate systems were intended for 3D work, but it rapidly became apparent that they are also very useful for 2D work. For example, if you are working on something that is at an angle to the UCS, such as an angled wing of a building or one arm of a machine linkage, then you can rotate the UCS to match the desired angle. In AutoCAD , a very significant enhancement has been added.

Specifically, the UCS icon is now an object in its own right.